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Franck Pachot

12cR2 Subquery Elimination

By December 21, 2017 Oracle No Comments

More and more we can see crazy queries generated by ORM frameworks or BI query generators. They are build to be easily generated rather than being optimal. Then, the optimizer has to implement more and more transformations to get an efficient execution plan. Here is one new that appeared in Oracle 12cR2: Subquery Elimination when the subquery do not filter any rows.

A semi-join is a join where we do not need to match with all rows, but only one. We write it with an EXISTS subquery or a =ANY or =SOME one, which is equivalent.

12.1

Here is the behaviour in 12.1.0.2 when the subquery do not filter any row because it reads the same table as the outer one, without any predicate:
SQL> select * from dbms_xplan.display_cursor(null,null,'allstats last +outline');
PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
-----------------
SQL_ID az1jcra46h5ua, child number 1
-------------------------------------
select * from EMP where ename in (select ename from EMP)
 
Plan hash value: 977554918
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Starts | E-Rows | A-Rows | A-Time | Buffers | OMem | 1Mem | Used-Mem |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 1 | | 14 |00:00:00.01 | 13 | | | |
|* 1 | HASH JOIN SEMI | | 1 | 14 | 14 |00:00:00.01 | 13 | 1098K| 1098K| 889K (0)|
| 2 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMP | 1 | 14 | 14 |00:00:00.01 | 7 | | | |
| 3 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMP | 1 | 14 | 14 |00:00:00.01 | 6 | | | |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

We read 2 times the same table, join all rows and finally return as result exacly the same rows as those coming from the first full scan. This is not efficient.

12.2

Here is the same query in 12.2 where we can see that the table is scanned only once because the optimizer knows that the subquery do not filter anything:

SQL> select * from dbms_xplan.display_cursor(null,null,'allstats last +outline');
PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
SQL_ID az1jcra46h5ua, child number 0
-------------------------------------
select * from EMP where ename in (select ename from EMP)
 
Plan hash value: 3956160932
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation | Name | Starts | E-Rows | A-Rows | A-Time | Buffers |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 1 | | 14 |00:00:00.01 | 9 |
|* 1 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMP | 1 | 14 | 14 |00:00:00.01 | 9 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This is mentioned in the outline hints with ELIMINATE_SQ:

Outline Data
-------------
 
/*+
BEGIN_OUTLINE_DATA
IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS
OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE('12.2.0.1')
DB_VERSION('12.2.0.1')
ALL_ROWS
OUTLINE_LEAF(@"SEL$D0DB0F9A")
ELIMINATE_SQ(@"SEL$2")
OUTLINE(@"SEL$1")
OUTLINE(@"SEL$2")
FULL(@"SEL$D0DB0F9A" "EMP"@"SEL$1")
END_OUTLINE_DATA
*/

This feature can be disabled with the following paramter:

SQL> alter session set "_optimizer_eliminate_subquery"=false;
Session altered.

Or with the following hint:

SQL> select * from EMP where ename in (select /*+ NO_ELIMINATE_SQ */ ename from EMP);

Finally here is what you can see in the CDB trace:

SQE: Trying SQ elimination.
SQE: Trying SQ elimination.
SQE: Query valid for SQ elimination:******* UNPARSED QUERY IS *******
SELECT "EMP"."EMPNO" "EMPNO","EMP"."ENAME" "ENAME","EMP"."JOB" "JOB","EMP"."MGR" "MGR","EMP"."HIREDATE" "HIREDATE","EMP"."SAL" "SAL","EMP"."COMM" "COMM","EMP"."DEPTNO" "DEPTNO" FROM "SCOTT"."EMP" "EMP" WHERE "EMP"."ENAME"=ANY (SELECT "EMP"."ENAME" "ENAME" FROM "SCOTT"."EMP" "EMP")
Registered qb: SEL$D0DB0F9A 0xe7035778 (SUBQUERY ELIMINATE SEL$1; SEL$2)
---------------------
QUERY BLOCK SIGNATURE
---------------------
signature (): qb_name=SEL$D0DB0F9A nbfros=1 flg=0
fro(0): flg=0 objn=73253 hint_alias="EMP"@"SEL$1"
 
SQE: Query after SQ elimination:******* UNPARSED QUERY IS *******
SELECT "EMP"."EMPNO" "EMPNO","EMP"."ENAME" "ENAME","EMP"."JOB" "JOB","EMP"."MGR" "MGR","EMP"."HIREDATE" "HIREDATE","EMP"."SAL" "SAL","EMP"."COMM" "COMM","EMP"."DEPTNO" "DEPTNO" FROM "SCOTT"."EMP" "EMP" WHERE 0=0 AND "EMP"."ENAME" IS NOT NULL

This example is simple and it is obvious that the SQL should be re-written. But with large generated queries, on complex views, this is the kind of thing that can be seen in the resulting query and this transformation will help to avoid unnecessary work.

 

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Franck Pachot
Franck Pachot

Technology Leader