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Daniel Westermann

Daniel Westermann

Rancher, up and running, on EC2 – 2 – Three nodes

By | AWS, Database Administration & Monitoring, Docker, Kubernetes | No Comments

In the last post we’ve brought up a RKE Kubernetes cluster on a single node. While that is cool for demonstration purposes or testing, this is nothing for a real life setup. Running the control pane, the etcd nodes and the worker nodes all on one node, is nothing you want to do usually, as you can not guarantee fault tolerance with such a setup. To make the RKE cluster highly available we’ll be adding…

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Daniel Westermann

Rancher, up and running, on EC2 – 1 – One node

By | AWS, DevOps, Kubernetes | No Comments

If you want to play with Rancher you have several options, as outlined in the documentation. There are quick starts for the major public cloud providers (using Terraform), you can install it on a Linux host by using the Rancher container or you can do it on your own. We’ll be doing it step by step, as I believe that gives most information on how things actually work. We’ll start with one node and then…

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Daniel Westermann

Be careful with prepared transactions in PostgreSQL

By | Database Administration & Monitoring | No Comments

PostgreSQL gives you the possibility for two-phase commit. You’ll might need that if you want an atomic distributed commit. If you check the PostgreSQL documentation there is a clear warning about using these kind of transactions: “Unless you’re writing a transaction manager, you probably shouldn’t be using PREPARE TRANSACTION”. If you really need to use them, you need to be very careful, that prepared transactions are committed or rollback-ed as soon as possible. In other…

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Daniel Westermann

[Data]nymizer – Data anonymizer for PostgreSQL

By | Database Administration & Monitoring | No Comments

Often there is the requirement to populate a test or development database with data from production, but this comes with a risk: Do you really want, that developers or testers have access to sensitive data? In a lot of companies this might not be an issue, but for others, sensitive data must not be available to any other database than production. In Oracle there is Data Masking but there is nothing in Community PostgreSQL which…

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Daniel Westermann

8000 PostgreSQL clusters on one host?

By | AWS, Database Administration & Monitoring | No Comments

Coming back to the last post: 8000 databases in one PostgreSQL cluster?. As we’ve seen this is doable but comes with a lot of pain points. Another solution for this kind of requirement would be to host 8000 PostgreSQL clusters on one host. Again, I am not saying this is something you should do, and again, this is not how it finally will be implemented. This is more about if you can do it, and…

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Daniel Westermann

PostgreSQL on FreeBSD, installation from source code

By | Database Administration & Monitoring | No Comments

This is the next post in this little series about PostgreSQL on FreeBSD. You can find the previous one here: PostgreSQL on FreeBSD, getting started PostgreSQL on FreeBSD, updating & configuration PostgreSQL on FreeBSD, installation from packages The downside with installing from packages on FreeBSD is, that you can only run one version of PostgreSQL. If you want to run more than one, you need to install from source code, and this is the topic…

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Daniel Westermann

PostgreSQL on FreeBSD, updating & configuration

By | Database Administration & Monitoring | No Comments

In the last post we installed FreeBSD, configured the keyboard, time zone and the first network interface, which gets it’s IP address via DHCP. In this post we’ll look at how we can configure the second interface, which gets a static IP address in the host only network. Once we’ve done that, we’ll update the system to the latest packages, have a look at the file system layout and kernel parameters so we can later…

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Daniel Westermann

PostgreSQL on FreeBSD, getting started

By | Database Administration & Monitoring | No Comments

Although we are running PostgreSQL mostly on Linux distributions, you can install an run PostgreSQL on a lot of other operating systems. On of them is FreeBSD. FreeBSD is one of those Unixes that derived from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) and it is well known for having very few security issues and it is running a wide range of websites today. In addition, it is the foundation of storage appliances such as Isilon. Running…

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Daniel Westermann

8000 databases in one PostgreSQL cluster?

By | Database Administration & Monitoring | No Comments

A while ago I posted this tweet on Twitter: #Postgresql friends: 8000 databases. One cluster, 8000 clusters, Kubernetes,, what would be your choice? Let's assume 10gb per database. I know backup/restore, inodes etc, no discussions about that, just thoughts and ideas — Daniel Westermann (@westermanndanie) January 27, 2021 While this might sound unusual, this actually was under consideration by one of our customers. Each of their customers usually gets a dedicated database and is free…

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