Infrastructure at your Service

Daniel Westermann

PostgreSQL on FreeBSD, installation from packages

In the last two posts we installed FreeBSD, configured networking, updated the system, installed bash and had a quick look at kernel parameters. In this post we’ll install PostgreSQL from packages. Of course you can also install PostgreSQL from source code, but this will be the topic for the next post.

We already used the “pkg” command in the last post for installing bash. The very same command is used when it comes to installing PostgreSQL from packages:

[[email protected] ~]$ pkg search postgresql
R-cran-RPostgreSQL-0.6.2_3     R Interface to the 'PostgreSQL' Database System
exim-postgresql-4.94_4         High performance MTA for Unix systems on the Internet
libgda5-postgresql-5.2.10      Provides postgresql access for the libgda5 library
opensmtpd-extras-table-postgresql-6.7.1,1 PostgreSQL table support for OpenSMTPD
p5-PostgreSQL-PLPerl-Call-1.007 Simple interface for calling SQL functions from PostgreSQL PL/Perl
p5-PostgreSQL-PLPerl-Trace-1.001_1 Simple way to trace execution of Perl statements in PL/Perl
p5-Test-postgresql-0.09_3      Perl extension of postgresql runner for tests
pgtcl-postgresql10-2.1.1_2     TCL extension for accessing a PostgreSQL server (PGTCL-NG)
pgtcl-postgresql11-2.1.1_2     TCL extension for accessing a PostgreSQL server (PGTCL-NG)
pgtcl-postgresql12-2.1.1_2     TCL extension for accessing a PostgreSQL server (PGTCL-NG)
pgtcl-postgresql13-2.1.1_2     TCL extension for accessing a PostgreSQL server (PGTCL-NG)
pgtcl-postgresql95-2.1.1_2     TCL extension for accessing a PostgreSQL server (PGTCL-NG)
pgtcl-postgresql96-2.1.1_2     TCL extension for accessing a PostgreSQL server (PGTCL-NG)
postgresql-jdbc-42.2.18        Java JDBC implementation for PostgreSQL
postgresql-libpgeasy-3.0.4_3   Easy-to-use C interface to PostgreSQL
postgresql-libpqxx-7.2.0       New C++ interface for PostgreSQL
postgresql-odbc-13.00.0000     PostgreSQL ODBC driver
postgresql-plproxy-2.10.0      Function-based sharding for PostgreSQL
postgresql-relay-1.3.2_1       Multiplex multiple PostgreSQL databases to one relay
postgresql-repmgr-5.2.0        PostgreSQL replication manager
postgresql10-client-10.15      PostgreSQL database (client)
postgresql10-contrib-10.15     The contrib utilities from the PostgreSQL distribution
postgresql10-docs-10.15        The PostgreSQL documentation set
postgresql10-plperl-10.15      Write SQL functions for PostgreSQL using Perl5
postgresql10-plpython-10.15    Module for using Python to write SQL functions
postgresql10-pltcl-10.15       Module for using Tcl to write SQL functions
postgresql10-server-10.15      PostgreSQL is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere
postgresql11-client-11.10      PostgreSQL database (client)
postgresql11-contrib-11.10     The contrib utilities from the PostgreSQL distribution
postgresql11-docs-11.10        The PostgreSQL documentation set
postgresql11-plperl-11.10      Write SQL functions for PostgreSQL using Perl5
postgresql11-plpython-11.10    Module for using Python to write SQL functions
postgresql11-pltcl-11.10       Module for using Tcl to write SQL functions
postgresql11-server-11.10      PostgreSQL is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere
postgresql12-client-12.5       PostgreSQL database (client)
postgresql12-contrib-12.5      The contrib utilities from the PostgreSQL distribution
postgresql12-cstore_fdw-1.7.0  Columnar store for analytics with PostgreSQL
postgresql12-docs-12.5         The PostgreSQL documentation set
postgresql12-ogr_fdw-1.0.12    PostgreSQL foreign data wrapper for OGR
postgresql12-orafce-3.13.4     Oracle's compatibility functions and packages for PostgreSQL
postgresql12-pg_dirtyread-2.3  Read dead but unvacuumed tuples from a PostgreSQL relation
postgresql12-pg_repack-1.4.6   Reorganize tables in PostgreSQL databases with minimal locks
postgresql12-pg_similarity-20160917_2 Set of functions and operators for executing similarity queries
postgresql12-plperl-12.5       Write SQL functions for PostgreSQL using Perl5
postgresql12-plpgsql_check-1.15.1 PostgreSQL extension to check PL/pgSQL code
postgresql12-plpython-12.5     Module for using Python to write SQL functions
postgresql12-pltcl-12.5        Module for using Tcl to write SQL functions
postgresql12-prefix-1.2.9      Prefix Range module for PostgreSQL
postgresql12-rum-1.3.7         Inverted index with additional information in posting lists
postgresql12-server-12.5       PostgreSQL is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere
postgresql12-tds_fdw-2.0.2     PostgreSQL foreign data wrapper to connect to TDS databases
postgresql12-zhparser-0.2.0_2  PostgreSQL extension for full-text search of Chinese
postgresql13-client-13.1       PostgreSQL database (client)
postgresql13-contrib-13.1_1    The contrib utilities from the PostgreSQL distribution
postgresql13-docs-13.1         The PostgreSQL documentation set
postgresql13-plperl-13.1       Write SQL functions for PostgreSQL using Perl5
postgresql13-plpython-13.1     Module for using Python to write SQL functions
postgresql13-pltcl-13.1        Module for using Tcl to write SQL functions
postgresql13-server-13.1_1     PostgreSQL is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere
postgresql95-client-9.5.24     PostgreSQL database (client)
postgresql95-contrib-9.5.24    The contrib utilities from the PostgreSQL distribution
postgresql95-docs-9.5.24       The PostgreSQL documentation set
postgresql95-mysql_fdw-2.5.4   PostgreSQL foreign data wrapper for MySQL
postgresql95-plperl-9.5.24     Write SQL functions for PostgreSQL using Perl5
postgresql95-plpython-9.5.24   Module for using Python to write SQL functions
postgresql95-pltcl-9.5.24      Module for using Tcl to write SQL functions
postgresql95-server-9.5.24     PostgreSQL is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere
postgresql96-client-9.6.20     PostgreSQL database (client)
postgresql96-contrib-9.6.20    The contrib utilities from the PostgreSQL distribution
postgresql96-docs-9.6.20       The PostgreSQL documentation set
postgresql96-plperl-9.6.20     Write SQL functions for PostgreSQL using Perl5
postgresql96-plpython-9.6.20   Module for using Python to write SQL functions
postgresql96-pltcl-9.6.20      Module for using Tcl to write SQL functions
postgresql96-server-9.6.20     PostgreSQL is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere
prometheus-postgresql-adapter-0.6.0 Use PostgreSQL as a remote storage database for Prometheus
py37-postgresql-1.1.0_5        Python 3 compatible PostgreSQL database driver and tools
rubygem-azure_mgmt_postgresql-0.17.2 Microsoft Azure PostgreSQL Client Library for Ruby

As you can see, all currently supported major versions of PostgreSQL are available (Note: 9.5 is our of support since this month). Very similar to the packages you find on Linux the, FreeBSD separates PostgreSQL into several packages:

  • The PostgreSQL server itself: postgresqlXX-server
  • The PostgreSQL extensions (except the procedural languages): postgresqlXX-contrib
  • The PostgreSQL client: postgresqlXX-client
  • The procedural languages: postgresql-XX-plxxx
  • The PostgreSQL documentation: postgresql-XX-docs
  • Various third party extensions, like e.g. mysql_fdw or plpgsql_check

Of course we want to go with the latest release (13.2 currently) so lets check what is available for PostgreSQL 13:

[[email protected] ~]$ pkg search postgresql13
pgtcl-postgresql13-2.1.1_2     TCL extension for accessing a PostgreSQL server (PGTCL-NG)
postgresql13-client-13.1       PostgreSQL database (client)
postgresql13-contrib-13.1_1    The contrib utilities from the PostgreSQL distribution
postgresql13-docs-13.1         The PostgreSQL documentation set
postgresql13-plperl-13.1       Write SQL functions for PostgreSQL using Perl5
postgresql13-plpython-13.1     Module for using Python to write SQL functions
postgresql13-pltcl-13.1        Module for using Tcl to write SQL functions
postgresql13-server-13.1_1     PostgreSQL is the most advanced open-source database available anywhere

The standard stuff is there, but compared to PostgreSQL 12 a lot of packages seem to be missing, and it is not the latest PostgreSQL release (still 13.1). Anyway, lets install the server and client:

[[email protected] ~]$ pkg install postgresql13-server postgresql13-client
Updating FreeBSD repository catalogue...
FreeBSD repository is up to date.
All repositories are up to date.
The following 10 package(s) will be affected (of 0 checked):

New packages to be INSTALLED:
        icu: 68.2,1
        libedit: 3.1.20191231,1
        libffi: 3.3_1
        libxml2: 2.9.10_2
        llvm11: 11.0.1
        lua52: 5.2.4
        perl5: 5.32.1_1
        postgresql13-client: 13.1
        postgresql13-server: 13.1_1
        python37: 3.7.9_1

Number of packages to be installed: 10

The process will require 986 MiB more space.
164 MiB to be downloaded.

Proceed with this action? [y/N]: y
[1/10] Fetching postgresql13-server-13.1_1.txz: 100%   13 MiB   2.7MB/s    00:05    
[2/10] Fetching postgresql13-client-13.1.txz: 100%    3 MiB   1.4MB/s    00:02    
[3/10] Fetching llvm11-11.0.1.txz: 100%  107 MiB   3.1MB/s    00:36    
[4/10] Fetching libxml2-2.9.10_2.txz: 100%  826 KiB 845.7kB/s    00:01    
[5/10] Fetching python37-3.7.9_1.txz: 100%   16 MiB   3.4MB/s    00:05    
[6/10] Fetching libffi-3.3_1.txz: 100%   39 KiB  40.0kB/s    00:01    
[7/10] Fetching perl5-5.32.1_1.txz: 100%   14 MiB   2.5MB/s    00:06    
[8/10] Fetching lua52-5.2.4.txz: 100%  175 KiB 178.7kB/s    00:01    
[9/10] Fetching libedit-3.1.20191231,1.txz: 100%  134 KiB 137.4kB/s    00:01    
[10/10] Fetching icu-68.2,1.txz: 100%   10 MiB   2.2MB/s    00:05    
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
[1/10] Installing libffi-3.3_1...
[1/10] Extracting libffi-3.3_1: 100%
[2/10] Installing libedit-3.1.20191231,1...
[2/10] Extracting libedit-3.1.20191231,1: 100%
[3/10] Installing libxml2-2.9.10_2...
[3/10] Extracting libxml2-2.9.10_2: 100%
[4/10] Installing python37-3.7.9_1...
[4/10] Extracting python37-3.7.9_1: 100%
[5/10] Installing perl5-5.32.1_1...
[5/10] Extracting perl5-5.32.1_1: 100%
[6/10] Installing lua52-5.2.4...
[6/10] Extracting lua52-5.2.4: 100%
[7/10] Installing postgresql13-client-13.1...
[7/10] Extracting postgresql13-client-13.1: 100%
[8/10] Installing llvm11-11.0.1...
[8/10] Extracting llvm11-11.0.1: 100%
[9/10] Installing icu-68.2,1...
[9/10] Extracting icu-68.2,1: 100%
[10/10] Installing postgresql13-server-13.1_1...
===> Creating groups.
Creating group 'postgres' with gid '770'.
===> Creating users
Creating user 'postgres' with uid '770'.
===> Creating homedir(s)

  =========== BACKUP YOUR DATA! =============
  As always, backup your data before
  upgrading. If the upgrade leads to a higher
  major revision (e.g. 9.6 -> 10), a dump
  and restore of all databases is
  required. This is *NOT* done by the port!
  See https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/upgrading.html
  ===========================================
[10/10] Extracting postgresql13-server-13.1_1: 100%
=====
Message from python37-3.7.9_1:

--
Note that some standard Python modules are provided as separate ports
as they require additional dependencies. They are available as:

py37-gdbm       databases/[email protected]
py37-sqlite3    databases/[email protected]
py37-tkinter    x11-toolkits/[email protected]
=====
Message from postgresql13-client-13.1:

--
The PostgreSQL port has a collection of "side orders":

postgresql-docs
  For all of the html documentation

p5-Pg
  A perl5 API for client access to PostgreSQL databases.

postgresql-tcltk 
  If you want tcl/tk client support.

postgresql-jdbc
  For Java JDBC support.

postgresql-odbc
  For client access from unix applications using ODBC as access
  method. Not needed to access unix PostgreSQL servers from Win32
  using ODBC. See below.

ruby-postgres, py-psycopg2
  For client access to PostgreSQL databases using the ruby & python
  languages.

postgresql-plperl, postgresql-pltcl & postgresql-plruby
  For using perl5, tcl & ruby as procedural languages.

postgresql-contrib
  Lots of contributed utilities, postgresql functions and
  datatypes. There you find pg_standby, pgcrypto and many other cool
  things.

etc...
=====
Message from postgresql13-server-13.1_1:

--
For procedural languages and postgresql functions, please note that
you might have to update them when updating the server.

If you have many tables and many clients running, consider raising
kern.maxfiles using sysctl(8), or reconfigure your kernel
appropriately.

The port is set up to use autovacuum for new databases, but you might
also want to vacuum and perhaps backup your database regularly. There
is a periodic script, /usr/local/etc/periodic/daily/502.pgsql, that
you may find useful. You can use it to backup and perform vacuum on all
databases nightly. Per default, it performs `vacuum analyze'. See the
script for instructions. For autovacuum settings, please review
~pgsql/data/postgresql.conf.

If you plan to access your PostgreSQL server using ODBC, please
consider running the SQL script /usr/local/share/postgresql/odbc.sql
to get the functions required for ODBC compliance.

Please note that if you use the rc script,
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql, to initialize the database, unicode
(UTF-8) will be used to store character data by default.  Set
postgresql_initdb_flags or use login.conf settings described below to
alter this behaviour. See the start rc script for more info.

To set limits, environment stuff like locale and collation and other
things, you can set up a class in /etc/login.conf before initializing
the database. Add something similar to this to /etc/login.conf:
---
postgres:\
        :lang=en_US.UTF-8:\
        :setenv=LC_COLLATE=C:\
        :tc=default:
---
and run `cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf'.
Then add 'postgresql_class="postgres"' to /etc/rc.conf.

======================================================================

To initialize the database, run

  /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql initdb

You can then start PostgreSQL by running:

  /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql start

For postmaster settings, see ~pgsql/data/postgresql.conf

NB. FreeBSD's PostgreSQL port logs to syslog by default
    See ~pgsql/data/postgresql.conf for more info

NB. If you're not using a checksumming filesystem like ZFS, you might
    wish to enable data checksumming. It can only be enabled during
    the initdb phase, by adding the "--data-checksums" flag to
    the postgres_initdb_flags rcvar.  Check the initdb(1) manpage
    for more info and make sure you understand the performance
    implications.

======================================================================

To run PostgreSQL at startup, add
'postgresql_enable="YES"' to /etc/rc.conf

The output is quite verbose and gives some interesting information. The first one is this:
“If you have many tables and many clients running, consider raising
kern.maxfiles using sysctl(8), or reconfigure your kernel
appropriately.”

This is something you should consider setting in production environments, but not important for now. The next one is this:

“The port is set up to use autovacuum for new databases, but you might
also want to vacuum and perhaps backup your database regularly. There
is a periodic script, /usr/local/etc/periodic/daily/502.pgsql, that
you may find useful. You can use it to backup and perform vacuum on all
databases nightly. Per default, it performs `vacuum analyze’. See the
script for instructions. For autovacuum settings, please review
~pgsql/data/postgresql.conf.”

I would be surprised if autovacuum is not enabled but informing about that does not harm. There is a reference to a script you might want to use for periodic backups and vacuuming of your databases. Notice that this script is only doing logical backups using pg_dump and pg_dumpall. Doing physical backups is a must for production workloads, so please do not rely on this script only.

The PostgreSQL packages for FreeBSD also come with an init script to initialize and start PostgreSQL:
“Please note that if you use the rc script,
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql, to initialize the database, unicode
(UTF-8) will be used to store character data by default. Set
postgresql_initdb_flags or use login.conf settings described below to
alter this behaviour. See the start rc script for more info.”

Lets go ahead an initialize PostgreSQL with all the defaults:

[[email protected] ~]$ /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql initdb
Cannot 'initdb' postgresql. Set postgresql_enable to YES in /etc/rc.conf or use 'oneinitdb' instead of 'initdb'.

Ok, this message is pretty clear:

[[email protected] ~]$ echo "postgresql_enable=\"YES\"" >> /etc/rc.conf
[[email protected] ~]$ /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql initdb
The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres".
This user must also own the server process.

The database cluster will be initialized with locale "C".
The default text search configuration will be set to "english".

Data page checksums are disabled.

creating directory /var/db/postgres/data13 ... ok
creating subdirectories ... ok
selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix
selecting default max_connections ... 100
selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB
selecting default time zone ... Europe/Vaduz
creating configuration files ... ok
running bootstrap script ... ok
performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok
syncing data to disk ... ok

initdb: warning: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections
You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or
--auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb.

Success. You can now start the database server using:

    /usr/local/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/db/postgres/data13 -l logfile start

As you can see the default for $PGDATA is “/var/db/postgres/data13”:

[[email protected] ~]$ ls /var/db/postgres/data13
PG_VERSION              pg_dynshmem             pg_multixact            pg_snapshots            pg_tblspc               postgresql.auto.conf
base                    pg_hba.conf             pg_notify               pg_stat                 pg_twophase             postgresql.conf
global                  pg_ident.conf           pg_replslot             pg_stat_tmp             pg_wal
pg_commit_ts            pg_logical              pg_serial               pg_subtrans             pg_xact

Lets start PostgreSQL:

[[email protected] ~]$ /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql start 
2021-02-19 01:48:01.925 CET [10715] LOG:  ending log output to stderr
2021-02-19 01:48:01.925 CET [10715] HINT:  Future log output will go to log destination "syslog".
[[email protected] ~]$ ps aux | grep postgres
postgres 10715   0.0  1.4 176276 28460  -  Ss   01:48     0:00.02 /usr/local/bin/postgres -D /var/db/postgres/data13
postgres 10717   0.0  1.4 176276 28476  -  Ss   01:48     0:00.00 postgres: checkpointer  (postgres)
postgres 10718   0.0  1.4 176276 28496  -  Ss   01:48     0:00.00 postgres: background writer  (postgres)
postgres 10719   0.0  1.4 176276 28496  -  Ss   01:48     0:00.00 postgres: walwriter  (postgres)
postgres 10720   0.0  1.4 176728 28776  -  Ss   01:48     0:00.00 postgres: autovacuum launcher  (postgres)
postgres 10721   0.0  0.8  30632 17420  -  Ss   01:48     0:00.00 postgres: stats collector  (postgres)
postgres 10722   0.0  1.4 176668 28740  -  Ss   01:48     0:00.00 postgres: logical replication launcher  (postgres)
root     10724   0.0  0.0    532   344  0  R+   01:48     0:00.00 grep postgres

The same as in Linux: The packages created a postgres user and a postgres group:

[[email protected] ~]$ su - postgres
$ id -a
uid=770(postgres) gid=770(postgres) groups=770(postgres)
$ psql 
psql (13.1)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# select version();
                                                                               version                                                                               
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 PostgreSQL 13.1 on amd64-portbld-freebsd12.2, compiled by FreeBSD clang version 10.0.1 ([email protected]:llvm/llvm-project.git llvmorg-10.0.1-0-gef32c611aa2), 64-bit
(1 row)

postgres=# 

As we enabled PostgreSQL in /etc/rc.conf it should come up by default once the box is rebooted:

[[email protected] ~]# init 6
[[email protected] ~]# Connection to 192.168.22.17 closed by remote host.
Connection to 192.168.22.17 closed.
[email protected]:~$ ssh [email protected]
Password for [email protected]:
Last login: Fri Feb 19 01:33:55 2021 from 192.168.22.1
FreeBSD 12.2-RELEASE-p3 GENERIC 

Welcome to FreeBSD!

Release Notes, Errata: https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/
Security Advisories:   https://www.FreeBSD.org/security/
FreeBSD Handbook:      https://www.FreeBSD.org/handbook/
FreeBSD FAQ:           https://www.FreeBSD.org/faq/
Questions List: https://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions/
FreeBSD Forums:        https://forums.FreeBSD.org/

Documents installed with the system are in the /usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/
directory, or can be installed later with:  pkg install en-freebsd-doc
For other languages, replace "en" with a language code like de or fr.

Show the version of FreeBSD installed:  freebsd-version ; uname -a
Please include that output and any error messages when posting questions.
Introduction to manual pages:  man man
FreeBSD directory layout:      man hier

Edit /etc/motd to change this login announcement.
[email protected]:~ # ps aux | grep postgres
postgres 799  0.0  1.1 176140 23524  -  Ss   01:56   0:00.02 /usr/local/bin/postgres -D /var/db/postgres/data13
postgres 801  0.0  1.1 176140 23568  -  Ss   01:56   0:00.00 postgres: checkpointer  (postgres)
postgres 802  0.0  1.1 176192 23604  -  Ss   01:56   0:00.00 postgres: background writer  (postgres)
postgres 803  0.0  1.1 176192 23604  -  Ss   01:56   0:00.00 postgres: walwriter  (postgres)
postgres 804  0.0  1.2 176700 24372  -  Ss   01:56   0:00.00 postgres: autovacuum launcher  (postgres)
postgres 805  0.0  0.6  30836 12536  -  Ss   01:56   0:00.00 postgres: stats collector  (postgres)
postgres 806  0.0  1.2 176640 24236  -  Ss   01:56   0:00.00 postgres: logical replication launcher  (postgres)
root     887  0.0  0.0    532   344  0  R+   01:56   0:00.00 grep postgres
[email protected]:~ # 

All fine, PostgreSQL is ready to be used.

You may have noticed that the binaries are not installed in a version dependent directory:

[email protected]:~ $ which pg_ctl
/usr/local/bin/pg_ctl
[email protected]:~ $ which postgres
/usr/local/bin/postgres

What will happen if we install another version of PostgreSQL?

[email protected]:~ # pkg install postgresql12-server postgresql12-client
Updating FreeBSD repository catalogue...
FreeBSD repository is up to date.
All repositories are up to date.
The following 2 package(s) will be affected (of 0 checked):

New packages to be INSTALLED:
        postgresql12-client: 12.5
        postgresql12-server: 12.5

Number of packages to be installed: 2

The process will require 53 MiB more space.
15 MiB to be downloaded.

Proceed with this action? [y/N]: y
[1/2] Fetching postgresql12-server-12.5.txz: 100%   12 MiB   1.5MB/s    00:09    
[2/2] Fetching postgresql12-client-12.5.txz: 100%    3 MiB   2.7MB/s    00:01    
Checking integrity... done (3 conflicting)
  - postgresql12-server-12.5 conflicts with postgresql13-server-13.1_1 on /usr/local/bin/initdb
  - postgresql12-client-12.5 conflicts with postgresql13-client-13.1 on /usr/local/bin/clusterdb
  - postgresql12-client-12.5 conflicts with postgresql13-client-13.1 on /usr/local/bin/clusterdb
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
Conflicts with the existing packages have been found.
One more solver iteration is needed to resolve them.
The following 4 package(s) will be affected (of 0 checked):

Installed packages to be REMOVED:
        postgresql13-client: 13.1
        postgresql13-server: 13.1_1

New packages to be INSTALLED:
        postgresql12-client: 12.5
        postgresql12-server: 12.5

Number of packages to be removed: 2
Number of packages to be installed: 2

Proceed with this action? [y/N]: 

This is maybe not what you want. If you decide to go with packages on FreeBSD you are stuck with one version of PostgreSQL. If we want to have the flexibility to run more than one version of PostgreSQL you need to install PostgreSQL from source code. This will be the topic for the next post.

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Daniel Westermann
Daniel Westermann

Principal Consultant & Technology Leader Open Infrastructure