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Franck Pachot

Unplug an Encrypted PDB (ORA-46680: master keys of the container database must be exported)

By January 21, 2018 Oracle No Comments

By Franck Pachot

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In the Oracle Database Cloud DBaaS you provision a multitenant database where tablespaces are encrypted. This means that when you unplug/plug the pluggable databases, you also need to export /import the encryption keys. You cannot just copy the wallet because the wallet contains all CDB keys. Usually, you can be guided by the error messages, but this one needs a little explanation and an example.

Here I’ll unplug PDB6 from CDB1 and plug it into CDB2

[[email protected] blogs]$ connect /@CDB1 as sysdba
SQLcl: Release 17.4.0 Production on Fri Jan 19 22:22:44 2018
Copyright (c) 1982, 2018, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
 
22:22:46 SQL> show pdbs
 
  CON_ID CON_NAME   OPEN MODE    RESTRICTED
  ------ ---------- ------------ ---------- 
       2 PDB$SEED   READ ONLY    NO
       3 PDB1       READ WRITE   NO
       5 PDB6       READ WRITE   NO

Here are the master keys:


SQL> select con_id,tag,substr(key_id,1,6)||'...' "KEY_ID...",creator,key_use,keystore_type,origin,creator_pdbname,activating_pdbname from v$encryption_keys;
 
  CON_ID TAG    KEY_ID...   CREATOR   KEY_USE      KEYSTORE_TYPE       ORIGIN   CREATOR_PDBNAME   ACTIVATING_PDBNAME
  ------ ---    ---------   -------   -------      -------------       ------   ---------------   ------------------
       1 cdb1   AcyH+Z...   SYS       TDE IN PDB   SOFTWARE KEYSTORE   LOCAL    CDB$ROOT          CDB$ROOT
       3 pdb6   Adnhnu...   SYS       TDE IN PDB   SOFTWARE KEYSTORE   LOCAL    PDB6              PDB6

Export keys and Unplug PDB

Let’s try to unplug PDB6:

22:22:51 SQL> alter pluggable database PDB6 close immediate;
Pluggable database PDB6 altered.
 
22:23:06 SQL> alter pluggable database PDB6 unplug into '/var/tmp/PDB6.xml';
 
Error starting at line : 1 in command -
alter pluggable database PDB6 unplug into '/var/tmp/PDB6.xml'
Error report -
ORA-46680: master keys of the container database must be exported

This message is not clear. You don’t export the container database (CDB) key. You have to export the PDB ones.

Then, I have to open the PDB, switch to it, and export the key:


SQL> alter session set container=PDB6;
Session altered.
 
SQL> administer key management set keystore open identified by "k3yCDB1";
Key MANAGEMENT succeeded.
 
SQL> administer key management
  2   export encryption keys with secret "this is my secret password for the export"
  3   to '/var/tmp/PDB6.p12'
  4   identified by "k3yCDB1"
  5  /
 
Key MANAGEMENT succeeded.

Note that I opened the keystore with a password. If you use an autologin wallet, you have to close it, in the CDB$ROOT, and open it with password.

Now I can unplug the database:


SQL> alter pluggable database PDB6 close immediate;
Pluggable database PDB6 altered.
 
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB6 unplug into '/var/tmp/PDB6.xml';
Pluggable database PDB6 altered.

Plug PDB and Import keys

I’ll plug it in CDB2:


SQL> connect /@CDB2 as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> create pluggable database PDB6 using '/var/tmp/PDB6.xml' file_name_convert=('/CDB1/PDB6/','/CDB2/PDB6/');
Pluggable database PDB6 created.

When I open it, I get a warning:


18:05:45 SQL> alter pluggable database PDB6 open;
ORA-24344: success with compilation error
24344. 00000 -  "success with compilation error"
*Cause:    A sql/plsql compilation error occurred.
*Action:   Return OCI_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO along with the error code
 
Pluggable database PDB6 altered.

The PDB is opened in restricted mode and then I have to import the wallet:


SQL> show pdbs
 
  CON_ID CON_NAME   OPEN MODE    RESTRICTED
  ------ --------   ---- ----    ----------
       2 PDB$SEED   READ ONLY    NO
       6 PDB6       READ WRITE   YES
 
SQL> select name,cause,type,status,message,action from pdb_plug_in_violations;
 
NAME   CAUSE                   TYPE      STATUS     MESSAGE                                 ACTION
----   -----                   ----      ------     -------                                 ------
PDB6   Wallet Key Needed       ERROR     PENDING    PDB needs to import keys from source.   Import keys from source.

Then I open the destination CDB wallet and import the PDB keys into it:


SQL> alter session set container=PDB6;
Session altered.
 
SQL> administer key management set keystore open identified by "k3yCDB2";
Key MANAGEMENT succeeded.
 
SQL> administer key management
  2   import encryption keys with secret "this is my secret password for the export"
  3   from '/var/tmp/PDB6.p12'
  4   identified by "k3yCDB2"
  5   with backup
  6  /
 
Key MANAGEMENT succeeded.

Now the PDB can be opened for all sessions


SQL> alter session set container=CDB$ROOT;
Session altered.
 
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB6 close;
Pluggable database PDB6 altered.
 
SQL> alter pluggable database PDB6 open;
Pluggable database PDB6 altered.

Here is a confirmation that the PDB has the same key as the in the origin CDB:


SQL> select con_id,tag,substr(key_id,1,6)||'...' "KEY_ID...",creator,key_use,keystore_type,origin,creator_pdbname,activating_pdbname from v$encryption_keys;
 
  CON_ID TAG    KEY_ID...   CREATOR   KEY_USE      KEYSTORE_TYPE       ORIGIN   CREATOR_PDBNAME   ACTIVATING_PDBNAME
  ------ ---    ---------   -------   -------      -------------       ------   ---------------   ------------------
       1 cdb2   AdTdo9...   SYS       TDE IN PDB   SOFTWARE KEYSTORE   LOCAL    CDB$ROOT          CDB$ROOT
       4 pdb1   Adnhnu...   SYS       TDE IN PDB   SOFTWARE KEYSTORE   LOCAL    PDB6              PDB6

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Franck Pachot
Franck Pachot

Principal Consultant / Database Evangelist
Oracle ACE Director
Oracle Database OCM 12c certified
AWS Database Specialty certified
Oak Table member

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